You might think that speed and range are the main indicators of how good an electric scooter is, but there’s another element you can’t afford to ignore: the suspension.
Ask any experienced rider and they’ll tell you that this is the secret sauce that elevates a scooter, separating the good from the downright luxurious.
There are a variety of suspension systems available, including spring, hydraulic, and rubber. Each has its advantages and drawbacks and they all perform slightly differently. Yet, they share the same objective: to deliver a buttery-smooth riding experience by soaking up the terrain underfoot.
Best Electric Scooters By Suspension Capabilities:
Based on the 99+ scooters I’ve reviewed, below are my top picks.
All of the scooters listed are equipped with dual shocks, one in the front and one in the rear, supporting both wheels and diffusing vibrations and impacts throughout the whole length of the scooter.
I’ve split them depending on the type of terrain they’re best suited to, as well as included the best budget choice for those of you that need to keep an eye on your purse strings.
Click on the different terrain types below to find the best scooter for you.
See Summary List of Best Electric Scooters with Suspension
- Horizon 10.4– Best suspension for those on a budget.
- Apollo Explore – Best suspension for roads, sidewalks, and boardwalks.
- Apollo Pro 52V – Best suspension for grassy areas including parks and fields.
- INOKIM Ox Hero – Best suspension for forest trails and hiking paths.
- Wolf Warrior – Best suspension for hilly, rocky, and mountain-esque terrain.
Best Suspension for Those on a Budget:
An awesome but practical commuter scooter that harnesses the power of a spring and hydraulic suspension system to deliver a smooth and enjoyable ride. Given the build quality, this scooter is excellent value for money and will get you from A to B in style, whilst making sure you’re comfortable at the same time.
The Apollo Explore is the ultimate comfort machine for city-based adventures. Its robust spring suspension and complementary large pneumatic tires ensure a smooth and comfortable ride across all urban terrain. A thoroughly reliable but fun weekend city warrior.
Apollo Pro 52V
The Apollo Pro 52V combines power and comfort thanks to its dual motors and high-quality spring and hydraulic suspension system. It’ll give you a taste of what riding a powerful, high-performance scooter feels like, whilst its insectoid frame, high ground clearance, and plush tires allow you to traverse flat off-road terrain, including parks and fields, with ease. It can take on forest trails and dirt tracks, too. The Pro is a great option if you want a powerful scooter that can break through the concrete barriers of city riding.
INOKIM Ox Hero
What makes the Ox Hero stand out from all the 98 other scooters I could have picked, is just how comfortable its ride quality is. The combination of the suspension and tires makes for a truly luxurious ride, giving it a premium feel befitting of the $1,699 price tag. Sure, it’s not the fastest scooter on the market and it might leave speed-fiends and adrenaline junkies a little disappointed, but the Ox is a surefire winner for anyone who wants a reliable and durable scooter that can deliver a luxurious ride for years to come.
A true beast, the Wolf Warrior is almost unparalleled when it comes to speed, power, and comfort. It boasts some of the best suspension I’ve reviewed, featuring dual front hydraulics and rear spring shocks to deliver a smooth, premium ride on even the roughest of terrain. This scooter has a serious attitude, but it’s got the bite to back up its bark — or should I say, howl?
Want to read my in-depth reviews of each scooter? Scroll down.
Or, see which scooters are best by type:
How We Conduct & Support Our Electric Scooter Research:
To support our rigorous scooter review and editorial process, we rely on affiliate commissions. These are at no cost to you.
If you read our guides and reviews, find a scooter that you like, and click through to the retailer then we may earn a commission. We only earn a commission if you purchase a scooter and are happy with it. If you decide that you don’t like it and return it, we don’t earn a commission.
Our work is independent and impartial. Retailers and manufacturers do not influence our reviews. This is extremely important to us as our mission is to help you find your perfect scooter.
Read more about our four core values, the scooter review process, editorial policy, and how Electric Scooter Insider is supported.
Best Suspension for Those on a Budget
Luckily, when it comes to choosing a scooter with suspension, you don’t need to pay through the nose for a comfortable ride. There are plenty of budget options out there, the best of which is the Horizon 10.4. This is a practical commuter scooter that delivers excellent ride quality for a great price.
Horizon Unboxing & Review
From its compact design, impressive load-bearing capability, and the perfect blend of spring and hydraulic suspension, join me as I give you an up-close and personal look at what the Horizon has to offer.
The 10.4 comes fitted with spring suspension in the front and hydraulics in the rear. This combination is an effective and affordable means of achieving a smooth and comfortable ride. Because of their affordability, spring shocks can sometimes produce a clicking or clanking noise, but luckily this isn’t a problem with the Horizon — not only will it keep your joints from aching on those longer journeys, but it’ll be blissfully quiet too.
Although the suspension system does most of the work to absorb the impact from bumps in the road, the tires play a part too. The Horizon is equipped with an 8-inch solid tire in the rear and an 8.5-inch pneumatic tire in the front. A bonus of air-filled tires is that they’re more malleable, so can mold to the road more easily, absorbing impact as they go and increasing your traction over obstacles. However, they are more vulnerable to flats, something solid tires don’t have any issues with.
This isn’t something you’ll need to worry about with the back wheel. Whilst solid rubber tires are known for their lack of shock absorption, the rear hydraulics stops this from being a problem, picking up the slack where you need it and preventing you from being shaken all over the place.
In terms of speed and power, the Horizon 10.4 is ideal if you’re a commuter who likes to switch between residential roads and busier bike lanes. Its maximum speed of 25 mph is perfectly matched to its suspension system, meaning that if you take a bump at top speed, your spring shocks will keep your wrists intact, whilst the hydraulics in the rear balance out the force of your movement and keep both you and your scooter steady and balanced.
If you have a longer journey, you’ll be thankful for the Horizon’s comfortable ride quality, especially if you plan to make use of its maximum 20-mile range. Its classic design, durability, and overall reliability will transform your morning commute and weekend adventures. It can support riders up to 265 lbs, and you can rest assured that its dual suspension will be able to perform even if you weigh in at the heavier end of this threshold.
The Horizon 10.4 features a rear drum brake in addition to a regenerative brake, giving you good control over your scooter’s speed when riding. This system is supported by the suspension, keeping you balanced when you apply pressure to the brakes. This is particularly important because all the braking power is directed towards the rear wheel. In this case, the increased traction of the front pneumatic tire helps to slow you down faster, whilst the front spring suspension stops you from nose-diving forward, keeping your stopping power reliable and responsive.
At 40 lbs, the Horizon 10.4 ticks that all-important commuter box of portability. It’s light enough to lift and is pretty compact when folded, thanks to its collapsible stem and folding handlebars. This means you won’t have to stress about finding somewhere to store it.
At $699, this scooter is excellent value for money and has all the necessary additions you’d expect of a great commuter scooter, including powerful lights for nighttime riding and an advanced throttle display. Its dual suspension system works seamlessly to deliver a comfortable ride, transforming your riding experience into an irresistible urge where you’ll want to do another lap of the block before hanging up your boots for the day.
This is an ideal option for anyone who is either new to scooting or wants to upgrade their entry-level scooter for a model that is more reliable, robust, and most importantly, comfortable.
Best Suspension for Roads, Sidewalks, and Boardwalks
If you’ve got an adventurous streak and you’re looking for a city scooter with dual suspension that can handle more than just the daily commute, I think this next one could be just your bag. With the Apollo Explore, the clue’s in the name – it’ll let you stretch your legs in your home city, unlocking parts you’ve never seen before whilst keeping you comfortable at the same time.
Like the Horizon 10.4, the Explore is fitted with a spring suspension system in the front but boasts dual-springs in the rear. The dual-spring shocks give you extra support when riding across more challenging surfaces, whilst the front takes care of your wrists. The suspension system is nicely balanced and ready to take on curbs, bumps in the road, and potholes of various sizes.
To help achieve that ultra-smooth ride, the Explore features two large, 10-inch pneumatic tires. Their size is a big advantage in helping to push you over large obstacles, whilst also providing increased traction to assist the suspension in keeping you grounded and balanced at all times. They’re also plush enough to help with shock absorption too, especially when riding over rough surfaces. Apollo might describe this scooter as ‘terrain agnostic’, but you’ll get the absolute best out of it when using it as a road scooter. However, it can easily take on well-maintained off-road routes, including parks, fields, and forest trails that aren’t overly challenging.
Despite the fact it only has a single motor, the Explore is a deceptively powerful machine that can reach up to 31 mph. Its acceleration is fast and responsive, reaching 15 mph in just 3.5 seconds, and its 1400W peak output earns it a reputation as a reliable hill climber. This will set you in good stead when cruising city boulevards.
All scooters need a good set of brakes to keep you safe and the Explore doesn’t disappoint. It’s fitted with high-quality front and rear disc brakes as well as a rear regenerative electric brake. These deliver strong and responsive stopping power, working with the spring suspension system to bring you to a smooth stop.
If you’re planning to spend a lot of time on your scooter, you’ll need the mileage to match your intrepid appetite. The Explore has one of the best ranges on offer for its price point and will keep you out and about for around 34 miles per charge. Comparable scooters offer much less and this generous range is down to the Explore’s high-quality Dynavolt battery, a brand that’s usually associated with motorcycles. It also has a relatively short recharging time of 4 hours if you purchase the fast charger. With the regular charger, this doubles to 8.
Like the suspension, the Explore’s construction is sturdy and robust, capable of supporting riders up to 265 lbs. The large foot deck has the dual purpose of keeping you balanced and comfortable whilst its blue and black tread gives the scooter an extra dash of flair. The frame also comes with an IP54 water-resistant rating which means it can stand light rain, but won’t cope with a more rigorous deluge.
Although you’ll spend most of your time riding your Apollo Explore, there will be a few occasions when you’ll need to lift and carry it. At 52 lbs it’s not the lightest scooter on the market but this is still a manageable task – although, you won’t want to heave it around for long. Luckily, it comes with a telescopic stem and foldable handlebars so it reduces down to a compact package that is ideal for storage.
Rider comfort, speed, and range are all vital parts of choosing a scooter, but it’s the little extras that separate the good from the great, and the Explore has lots of these. It comes with an LCD trigger throttle display that will give you full visibility on your riding stats as well as allowing you some customization of your braking strength and power mode. Next to this is a bell, perfect for making sure others know you’re coming.
Next up is the impressive suite of lights, including a bright headlight, dual taillights, under-deck atmospheric lights, and top all that off, an LED strip that runs down the handlebar stem. With all lights switched on, it looks like a spaceship.
The Explore is a great all-rounder that’s perfect if you’re looking for a fun, reliable, and comfortable ride to get out and about on city streets as well as the occasional off-road adventure. The robust suspension system and matching construction make this scooter well worth its £1,199 retail price. Plus, it comes with an impressive 24-month warranty so you can enjoy your luxurious ride safely in the knowledge that Apollo will have your back if anything goes wrong. The first 12-months will cover you for manufacturer defects, whereas wear and tear is protected for the entire 24-months.
Best Suspension for Grassy Areas, Including Parks and Fields
Sometimes, scooter adventures don’t have to be confined to sidewalks and streets, especially not where there are expanses of open parklands and inviting fields fringing your home town. In those instances, you want something that will allow you to expand your boundaries. The Apollo Pro 52V is the ideal flat-terrain off-roader, equipped with all the necessary components to keep you comfortable when you venture off the beaten track, as well as delivering an awesome punch of power.
This scooter’s suspension is made up of a combination of spring shocks in the front and hydraulics in the back. The latter is slightly more expensive than springs as well as being quieter too. It also produces a more fluid bounce for a smoother ride. This matches well with the Pro’s top speed of 38 mph. The faster pace means that you’ll roll over obstacles with greater force, so your suspension will need to work harder to stop you from going over the handlebars. The Pro’s spring-hydraulic duo makes this a piece of cake.
The suspension isn’t the only thing keeping you balanced. As with all scooters, the wheels play a large part too. The Pro 52V features 10-inch pneumatic tires that are vital for getting you up and over large obstacles without breaking a sweat. Their height also pushes the deck up higher than on other models, giving you excellent ground clearance which you’ll find particularly useful when riding off-road.
On top of the suspension system and the Pro’s beefy tires, the build quality and design of this scooter make a huge difference. The ultra-cool, raised insectoid frame is extremely durable and the swingarms, that attach the mainframe to both wheels, allow for deeper suspension.
It also has an IP54 water-resistant rating, so rain won’t hold you back from your off-road adventures. Unlike lots of other scooters out there, it has a very impressive weight limit of 330 lbs, which is not only a testament to the build quality but ideal for heavier riders, too. Out of the 99 scooters I have in my database, the Apollo Pro sits in the top 18% for scooters that can support the most weight.
In addition to its excellent ride quality, the Pro stands out for the power it offers. As I’ve mentioned, it can hit a top speed of 38 mph which is down to its dual motors, each with a peak power output of 1200W. The Pro is all about acceleration and torque: it can reach 30 mph in 6.4 seconds and climb hills with a 40% incline (equivalent to 21.8 degrees) without batting an eyelash. Plus, there’s no need to worry that your ride will get rougher the faster you go – the suspension system will keep ride quality as smooth as a baby’s bottom whether you’re on asphalt, grass, or dirt.
To combat the ridiculously fast acceleration curve, the 52V features dual cable disc brakes to slow you down, as well as a regenerative brake that kills the motor for a faster stop. Even if you have to slam the brakes on at the last minute, the suspension and traction from the wheels will keep you stable and balanced until you come to a stop. Although the Pro’s cable brakes are capable of bringing you to a secure stop, Apollo offers an upgrade to hydraulics for an additional $150. If you’ve got the budget, I highly recommend doing this for sharper performance.
Compared to the Apollo Explore, the range on the Pro is longer, giving you the chance to ride for up to 56 miles, although aggressive riders will see a much-reduced number (around 25-35 miles when ridden in turbo or dual-mode). Like other Apollo models, it comes with a fast and standard charger option. The latter will recharge your scooter in 10 hours, whereas the former cuts that in half, taking a mere 5 hours.
Just like all of Apollo’s scooters, the luxury of the Pro extends beyond its plush ride quality to the added extras. You can purchase a detachable seat for an additional cost if you want to take it easy while riding, and you can even switch on cruise control for the optimal riding experience. This can be operated from the handlebar display which shows your current riding stats as well as allowing you some customization of the scooter’s configuration (e.g. braking power and power mode).
At 77 lbs, the Pro isn’t a lightweight scooter, but it is in line with other high-performance models. You won’t want to carry this around for long periods – it’ll be particularly punishing on your back and shoulders. Like all good scooters, the Pro folds but on the Apollo site it also says it has folding handlebars – I can assure you it doesn’t. If it did, it would be fairly compact when completely collapsed, making up for its bulk, but I’m afraid you’re going to need to make space for this big boy. Although portability isn’t its strong suit, the Pro more than makes up for this with its ferocious appetite for speed and superior riding performance. If you need a scooter that is better suited to portability, check out the Apollo Explore.
Apollo scooters have a reputation for being reliable as well as extremely fun. You can also expect great post-purchase support from their Canada-based team, as well as having the security of their generous 24-month warranty. This, in itself, makes it worth the $1,799 price tag, without even mentioning the high-quality suspension system and excellent ride quality. The Pro is a great option if you want a powerful scooter that can help you break through the concrete barriers of city riding.
Best Suspension for Forest Trails and Hiking Paths
Sure, there are plenty of scooters out there with top-notch suspension systems but there’s only one that has patented its unique suspension design. That’s right — the INOKIM Ox Hero not only delivers an outstanding ride quality but it does so with style and individuality.
INOKIM Ox Deep Dive | Is it Worth the Price Tag?
From its eye-popping orange swingarms to the vertically integrated construction, effortless folding mechanism, and plush nimble tires, the INOKIM Ox has a lot to offer – but, is it worth its high price tag? Watch the video to find out.
Unlike other models on this list, the Ox Hero uses adjustable rubber suspension to achieve a buttery-smooth ride. This is generally a bit lighter than spring or hydraulic suspension systems and also eliminates the risk of any noisy clanking. With the Ox Hero, you can choose between a low and a high setting. The former is a lot stiffer and is ideal for riding at top speeds, whereas the latter setting produces a much softer ride, giving better shock absorption and deck clearance for when you venture off-road.
INOKIM was the first scooter brand to use this kind of suspension, patenting it under their name. All the others that followed took their inspiration from what INOKIM began. If you’re looking for a premium suspension system, it doesn’t get better than this.
Thanks to the two different suspension levels, the Hero is very versatile. It’s at home on smooth asphalt as well as forest trails and hiking paths. It also comes with pneumatic wheels measuring 10 inches tall and 2.5 inches wide, which help to keep you balanced. The tire tread is on the slick side, however, you can purchase optional off-road tires if your track has a looser surface.
One downside to pneumatics is that they are more vulnerable to flats, and you might need to change them more frequently than you would a rubber tire. However, the wheels are secured with just a single swingarm. This means that they’re only attached to one side, so you can change tires easily when you need to. This design maximizes comfort and convenience which is a winning combination.
In addition to the incredible build quality, one of the best features is Hero’s stellar construction. Unlike many other scooters, all of the Ox’s components are custom made, so they fit together seamlessly. This reduces the potential for weak spots in the scooter’s build so you can rest assured that one awkward pothole isn’t going to spell disaster and put an end to your off-road adventures.
Because of its sturdiness, the Hero can support a weight load of up to 265 lbs, making it a good option for heavier riders. Additionally, the foot deck has a generous amount of room so you can find a stance that feels natural to you. This further increases your comfort, especially on longer rides.
Fitted with a 60V 13Ah Lithium-Ion battery, the Ox Hero claims a maximum range of 32-37 miles, but you’ll only see this kind of mileage if you ride consistently at 15 mph and weigh less than 165 lbs. You’re more likely to reach around 22-25 miles on a single charge. If you’re looking for something that can go further, take a look at the Ox Super. This is very similar to the Hero but has a 21 Ah LG battery with a maximum range of 59 miles and a realistic one of 32-35 miles. It is more expensive though, costing $300 more than the Hero.
If there was one underwhelming element of the Ox Hero, it would have to be its speed. It’s equipped with an 800W motor and can reach a top speed of 28 mph, which is on the slow side compared with other scooters that sit in the same price bracket (i.e. the Apollo Pro 52V). On the bright side, once the Hero gets going, it accelerates at a rapid pace and is fast enough that you can choose to venture out of the bike lane if you fancy it.
Even if the Hero’s speed is a little lackluster, its brakes certainly aren’t. It comes with a front drum brake and a rear disc brake, both of which are reliable. Combined with the traction from the wheels and the superior suspension, they give you complete control, enabling you to manage your pace at all times.
Even with the weight-saving factor of rubber suspension, the Hero is still a fairly hefty scooter, weighing 57 lbs. Similar to the Apollo Pro, you’re not going to want to spend a lot of time carrying it. However, the 5-second folding mechanism does make it easy to collapse if you do need to lift it and dash in a hurry.
Overall, the Ox is a surefire winner for anyone who wants a reliable and durable scooter that can deliver a luxurious ride for years to come.
Best Suspension for Hilly, Rocky, and Mountain-Esque Terrain
Extreme off-roading requires a special kind of scooter. It needs to be able to keep you safe and comfortable whilst traveling at high speeds across unpredictable terrain. There’s only one scooter that I could pick to fit this bill — the Wolf Warrior, a personal favorite of mine and many other enthusiasts.
It’s big, it’s bad and it sure as heck has the suspension to match. The Wolf is fitted with dual hydraulic suspension in the front and dual springs in the back. This is like taking the Apollo Pro but doubling it up to give an utterly seamless and luxurious ride quality.
This setup, particularly the dual hydraulics, is more commonly found on motorcycles than electric scooters and is one of the best suspension systems available. This makes sense given that, at its core, the Wolf Warrior shares more in common with a motorcycle than it does with many of its tamer electric scooter cousins.
To complement the suspension, the Wolf Warrior is fitted with giant 11-inch tubeless pneumatic tires. The tubeless design makes for a more robust tire, reducing the risks of flats, without losing any of the natural shock absorption and traction you get from pneumatic, air-filled tires. Because of their wide profile (3.5 inches), they also deliver excellent stability, keeping you balanced across even the roughest terrain.
Although knobby, off-road tires are recommended if you’re planning to ride over loose surfaces like dirt or rocks, the Wolf Warrior is also available to order with road wheels. These feature a slicker tread and will have reduced performance on anything other than smooth asphalt and light off-road trails. So, to get the best ride quality possible, I’d recommend choosing the textured tires if you’re planning to spend any time off-road.
The suspension on the Wolf comes into its own when you’re riding at top speeds. On a scooter without any suspension, this is when you’re most likely to feel all the bumps beneath you, but the Wolf Warrior laps it up without complaint. Given that this beast can reach a phenomenal top speed of 50 mph, you’re going to want a reliable system to keep you safe and grounded — this scooter doesn’t disappoint.
It’s also worth noting that even the acceleration is nothing short of brutal and it’ll be ready to charge forward with even the slightest pressure on the accelerator, especially when in turbo and dual motor mode. To put this into perspective, you can expect to hit 15 mph in just 1.9 seconds, and 30 mph in 5.2 seconds.
As a result of the phenomenal torque, the Wolf is a natural hill-climber and can defeat even the steepest of hills with a 30% incline grade. With all of its power, it’s safe to say that experienced riders should be wearing a layer of protective clothing as well as headgear when venturing out on this bad boy.
Unsurprisingly, the Wolf Warrior has a hefty set of brakes to balance out the combined 5400W power of its ferocious motors. Equipped with dual hydraulic brakes, the Wolf responds quickly to any braking action, bringing you to a prompt stop. The impressive suspension also means that you’ll slow down nice and smoothly, without any jerking or uncomfortable bouncing as the Wolf adjusts to the change in speed.
With ride quality this good, you’ll want to make the most of the Wolf Warrior’s staggering 70-mile range. Equipped with a large 35Ah LG battery, you’ll be able to enjoy hour after hour without having to plug in and recharge. Even when your battery does run dry, re-juicing should only take around 8 hours which is pretty impressive considering the reach this thing has when operating on a full tank. As with all scooters, if you ride aggressively (i.e. with both motors engaged), you can expect decreased mileage – for the Wolf, this is around 40-45 miles.
In terms of practicality, this scooter is equipped with everything you need for a convenient and safe ride. It features a digital display, giving you visibility over your stats, as well as an excellent array of lights. Its two massive headlights are perfect for piercing even the darkest nights, and the deck lights, ground effects, and huge red LED taillight keep you visible to others. And if that fails, you’ve also got a horn loud enough to wake the dead.
Aesthetically, the Wolf Warrior is unlike anything else on the market. It has not one, but two large forks which give it a unique, menacing aesthetic whilst also providing additional support and stability for high-speed riding. Its elevated deck means it has good ground clearance — perfect if you like to test the limits and execute daring jumps. And finally, because of its beefy construction, the Wolf Warrior can comfortably support riders up to 330 lbs, making it a great choice for heavier adults.
As good as this all sounds, it does mean that the Wolf is not a lightweight scooter. It weighs a whopping 101 lbs, which is heavy enough to challenge even the strongest of riders. It’s certainly not a scooter that you’ll be taking on the bus with you, even if it can be folded.
The Wolf Warrior is a hard scooter to beat when it comes to suspension and ride quality. It keeps you comfortable and protected while riding at high speeds on off-road tracks. At $2,799, it may appear fairly expensive, but there’s a reason it’s so popular and once you’ve ridden it you’ll have a hard time going back to the more normal, run-of-the-mill models.
Plus, I’ll let you in on a little secret – many of the components that make the Wolf Warrior such a fierce scooter are manufactured by Mini Motors USA. If you didn’t know, these are the guys who are responsible for designing and building the Dualtron range (these are well documented for being extreme performance scooters). The best bit is that the Wolf is considerably cheaper than its Dualtron counterparts (e.g. the Dualtron Ultra, an off-road monster that matches the Wolf Warrior for performance, retails for around $3,990).
If you’re looking for a scooter with a superior suspension system that's been designed to eat up off-road terrain for breakfast and spit it back out, then the Wolf Warrior is the best you’ll find.
Foldable, Light & Most Portable / Commuting
Horizon 10.4 – With a weight of 40 lbs and an excellent folding system, including folding handlebars, the Horizon 10.4 is both compact for storage and the lightest scooter with a decent suspension system.
- Wolf Warrior – (Hilly, rocky, and mountain-esque) – Features an impressively durable frame, robust dual suspension system, and massive knobby wheels for smooth riding and increased traction across rough terrain.
- INOKIM Ox Hero – (Forest trails and hiking paths) – Reliable and sturdy, the Ox Hero is fitted with a unique, patented adjustable rubber suspension system and large tires, perfect for light off-roading.
- Apollo Pro 52V – (Grassy areas including parks and fields) – With the spring and hydraulic suspension system, alongside the large slick wheels, the Apollo Pro keeps riders comfortable when riding across parks, fields, and well-maintained off-road routes.